In 1962, a paper was published by Burton Malkiel in the Journal of the American Statistical Association laying out a set of analytical statistics concerning the outcome of hand of blackjack in Millions of Hands. At the time, the famous card counting method originated from this publication.
Burton made a simple analytical calculation based on the probability of cards being eliminated from the shoe as well as the probability of cards being dealt from the shoe being favorable to the player. Further Burton introduced this idea of statistical natural selection. Malkiel improved the analysis by determining the average number of cards remaining in the shoe before drawing the fifth card.
This statistical method quickly became a gold mine of information for Las Vegas and card counting players. However, for several years no one could successfully make a living betting only at blackjack. First, the cards were manufactured by the large gambling monopolies and Grossman sold his secret to a small firm by the name ofausbilt numeralis. veritably two brothers,illington and matlong, invented the card counting method now widely used in the modern casinos.
In a period of 6 years, reading the published material plus using the new mathematical tool of counting cards, Malkiel improved his BlackJack betting odds to strike it rich in Vegas.
Modern Card Counting – Card Counting and maths
As described in the movie 21, Burton Malkiel’s single largest contribution to the organised crime world was to introduce the grade card counting methodologies. This was done before the prediction methods were publicly available. However, in the late 1960s the counting methods were published and the first card counting team formed. Two years later, Edward O. Thorp successfully applied the counted cards method to the next edition of ordinary blackjack.
When a massive gambling wave swept the Zaragoza (corse in Spanish) economy, Grossman, working withugi outlinesapped the massive impact of organised crime on the economy, enabling gamblers to fix one anothers hands in casinos. The gambling count method then became widely used in the casinos of Monte Carlo, and eventually, other parts of the world, as applied to the backgammon game.
More thorough development of the count followed in the 1970s, 1980s and 90s. Peter Griffin, in particular, made a name for himself shedding light on the card counting methods, and convincing the casino owners to make changes to the game. Later on, Griffin would continue to be an inspiration and main proponent for the card counting methods, even helping to negotiate the card counting changes with Las Vegas.
In conclusion, there seems to be some confusion on the history of card counting in blackjack. Thorpe states that the idea was Popularized by Edward O. Thorp in 1962, but many people, including Burton Malkiel, Peter Griffin and Lawrence Revere, thought it began earlier than that. Whatever the exact origins of the game, one thing is certain – the methods that have been used to count cards have improved over time, making blackjack more of a mathematics and odds business than a just a game of luck.